Red Square, along with the Kremlin, are the main attractions of Russia. About these two places knows every foreigner, even one who is weak in geography. And all because Red Square is the symbol of the entire country and all its people. Red Square is located at the Western Wall of the Moscow Kremlin. It deservedly ranks among the most beautiful squares in the world. It appeared in the 15th century when Tsar Ivan III ordered not to build up the area around the Kremlin after a fire. Then trading started and later Lobnoye Mesto was erected, from which royal decrees were read. In general, the area quickly became an urban shopping, social and political center.
During Tsar Ivan Grozny’s reign Red Square began to appear similar to which we are now accustomed to. After the fall of Kazan in the year 1555 on Vasilievskiy Spusk, near the Spasskii Gates, was built the Savior Cathedral, which later became known as Saint Basil's Cathedral. By that time at one edge of Red Square were already erected the Kremlin Walls made of red brick. They were built in the years 1485-1516 in place of white stone walls, built during Dmitrii Donskoy’s time. The Kremlin Walls, like many cathedrals of the Kremlin were designed by Italian masters from Verona. The teeth of the Kremlin wall are in the shape of a swallow tail and very similar to the walls of Verona.
Other buildings on Red Square were built significantly later. On the opposite side of the Kremlin wall, in 1813, for the whole length of Red Square (695 m, or 750 yards) shops were built, so that the area retained its function as a place of commerce, but in the year 1890 in their place a building was erected in the pseudo-Russian style, which became known as the Upper Trading Rows. Now this building is called GUM (the Government Universal store).
Near GUM, opposite St. Basil's Cathedral, in the year 1895 the Historical Museum was built, and the architectural ensemble of Red Square was completed. In the Museum you can see quite an interesting display of the history of Russia from the earliest times to the present.
From historical buildings you can still notice the Resurrection (the Savior) Gates, built in the year 1535. Previously, they were the main gate of the Kitai-Gorod (trans: China-City) wall, through which you could enter Red Square. Now they join the Historical Museum and the Museum of the War of 1812. Next to the historic Cathedral at the corner of Red Square is Kazan Cathedral, which stored the icon of Kazan Mother of God before it was transferred to the Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg. In the center of the Red Square in 1924, Lenin's mausoleum was built. For almost a century there has laid the embalmed body of Lenin. It is open to the public every day from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., except Mondays and Fridays. Society has debated about the necessity of burying Lenin for a long time, but so far everything remains unchanged.